# Radioactive dating isotopes

While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life , usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques. After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a "daughter" nuclide or decay product . In many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain , eventually ending with the formation of a stable (nonradioactive) daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life. In these cases, usually the half-life of interest in radiometric dating is the longest one in the chain, which is the rate-limiting factor in the ultimate transformation of the radioactive nuclide into its stable daughter. Isotopic systems that have been exploited for radiometric dating have half-lives ranging from only about 10 years (., tritium ) to over 100 billion years (., samarium-147 ). [4]

Nuclei can also decay by capturing one of the electrons
that surround the nucleus. Electron capture leads to a decrease of one in the
charge on the nucleus. The energy given off in this reaction is carried by an x-ray
photon, which is represented by the symbol * hv* , where * h* is Planck's constant
and * v* is the frequency of the x-ray. The product of this reaction can be predicted,
once again, by assuming that mass and charge are conserved.

Radioactive dating isotopes

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Radioactive dating isotopes